Ese koko abatuye Isi bose bakomotse kumunyafurikakazi aho kuba kuri Adamu na Eva?

Abantu benshi bemera umwandiko wa Bibiliya bakawufata nk’ihame ndakuka ku bijyanye n’iremwa rya Muntu. Ni mu gihe kuko babwirwa ko ibyanditswe (Byera) byose byahumetswe n’Imana… (2 Timoteyo3:16) Icyakora igitabo cya Bibiliya abenshi bishingikirizaho babara inkuru ya Adamu na Eva ubwacyo kibara inkuru y’iremwa mu buryo buvuguruzanya.

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Mu gice cya mbere cy’itangiriro Bibiliya ivuga ko Imana yabanje kurema ibintu byose hanyuma ikabona kurema umuntu ngo abitegeke byose (itangiriro 1:26). Mu gice cya 2 Bibiliya ivuga ko isi yari itaragira ikintu na kimwe kiyibaho usibye igihu cyavaga mu isi ngo kigatosa ubutaka, hanyuma ngo irema umuntu mu mukungugu wo hasi imuhumekera umwuka w’ubugingo mu mazuru… hanyuma ikeba ingobyi iyishyiramo uwo muntu yaremye irangije ibona kumeza ibiti by’imbuto … Aha byumvikanisha ko umuntu yabayeho mbere y’ibindi biremwa ( Itangiriro 2:4-9). Mbere yo kwemera gusa twakagombye no gushishoza tugakoresha n’ubwenge Imana yaduhaye kuko ukurikije ubuzima tubayeho dutunzwe n’ibyo kurya aha nta kuri na guke kurimo.

None se iyi nkuru ni ukuri cyangwa ni umugani ?

Ukomeje ku murongo wa 10 naho hari ikindi kintu gitangaje cyerekana ukuntu uyu mwandiko ari umugani kurusha uko ari ukuri.Ahangaha ubona ko agace kavugwaho kuba ari ho Imana yashyize Adamu kadasobanutse kuko bihabanye cyane n’ibyo siyansi igaragaza iyo ivuga ku bijyanye n’isano iri hagati y’abatuye isi hakurikijwe ADN zabo (Reba ikarita).

Ibigaragara kuri iyi karita kandi bigahura neza neza n’ukuntu isi yagiye iturwa, kuko bidashidikanywaho ari Afrika yatuwe bwa mbere mu gihe Bibiliya hano yerekana ko Adamu yashyizwe i Kushi kandi icyo kikaba ari igice cy’Abahinde nabo ubwabo bakomoka hano muri Afrika. Ibi bituma abantu bashakira ubuturo bw’umuntu wa mbere ari we Adamu mu Burasirazuba bwo hagati ari naho habarizwa uruzi rwa Ufurate n’igihugu cya Ashuri (Assyrie) mu gihe abatuye aha bose siyansi yagaragaje ko inkomoko yabo ya mbere ari muri Afrika.

None se umuntu waremwe yari umugore cyangwa yari umugabo ? Aha naho harimo akantu abantu bakagombye gutekerezaho aho kwemera gusa. Abahanga mu rurimi rw’igiheburayo rwakuwemo izina “ādām”  ryakoreshejwe mu mwandiko wa Bibiliya  bagaragaza ko izina Adamu ubwaryo bidasobanuye umugabo ahubwo ko bisobanuye Kiremwa-muntu. Naho mbere yo kuvuga iby’umugore n’ukuntu yakuwe mu rubavu rw’umugabo Bibiliya yivugira ku murongo wa 27 w’igice cya 1 mu Itangiriro iti : Umugabo n’umugore ni ko yabaremye. Hano umuntu akaba yavana mo ko mu mizo ya mbere Imana yaremye umuntu gusa, utari umugore ntabe n’umugabo. Mu bubasha bwayo buhambaye uyu muntu (“ādām”) akaza kuzavamo ibitsina byombi.

Mu mpera y’imyaka ya za 1980 ubushakashatsi bwari bumaze igihe bukorwa ku miterere y’ibigize imibiri y’abatuye mu duce twose tw’isi bukaba bwarakorewe ku duce duto cyane tw’ingirabuzima fatizo za muntu (Mitochondries humaines) ADNtm imwe ubwayo iba igizwe n’uduce 16.000 twitwa nucleotides) ku bwaje gusozwa bugaragaje ikintu gitangaje abantu batari bazi:

Ihindagurika ry’umwimerere ry’umubiri wa muntu rya mbere y’andi mahindagurika yose yabayeho kuva kuri gakondo ya muntu (Homo Sapiens) kugera ku muntu uteye imbere  ryabereye muri Africa mbere na mbere hakaba hashize imyaka iri hagati y’ ibihumbi ijana n’ibihumbi ijana na mirongo ine (100.000-140.000 ans), kandi abantu bose batuye ku isi ni abuzukuru b’uwo muntu wavuye muri iryo hinduka ryabayeho icyo gihe muri Afrika.

Mu ntangiriro za 1990 uwitwa Leakey yaranditse ati  :

ADN mitochondrial  ya buri muntu batuye isi bose iyo bava bakagera yagaragaje kugirana isano n’umugore wigeze gutura ku butaka bwa Afrika mu myaka 100.000 ishize. Dushobora kubona inkomoko y’umugabo wa none binyuriye mu gusuzuma chromosome Y maze bikatujyana bikatugeza mu gihe nk’icyo ngicyo. Dukeka ko umuntu wa none (Homo Sapiens Sapiens) yabyawe n’itsinda rito ry’abantu bari barikusanyirije hamwe  mu myaka 100.000-150.000 ishize. Uwo muntu akaba yaravuye mu gatsinda gato k’Abanyafrika nk’uko ikinyamakuru The Time cyabyanditse mu numero yacyo yo ku wa 8 Gicurasi 2007 aho cyagize kiti : Ubushakashatsi bwa vuba cyane bwakozwe n’impuguke ziga ku miremerwe ya muntu (généticiens) bo muri Kaminuza ya Cambridge bugaragza ko inkomoko nyakuri ya Muntu ari mu itsinda rito ryagiye ryaguka maze aba mbere batangira kwimuka mu myaka 55.000 kugeza ku 60.000 ishize. Ubwoko bw’umuntu wa mbere homo sapiens bwaba bwaragaragaye cyangwa bwaravutse guhera mu myaka 120.000 ishize kandi ngo nta kwivanga kwabayeho hagati y’uyu Homo sapiens na Homo erectus.

Ku bw’aba bashakashatsi ngo habayeho Muntu (Eva) umwe wavuyeho bose aho kuba Adamu wavanywemo Eva nawe akabyara abasigaye bose. Ibi babivuga bashingiye ko muri ADNtm zose zapimwe nta na hamwe babonye izisanisha n’igitsina gabo cyabayeho nyamara ahubwo zose zigahuriza kuri wa mugore twavuze haruguru wabaheho muri Afrika mu myaka 100.000 ishize. Ni ukuvuga ko habayeho « Eve mitochondriale » na  « Adam chromosomique ». Uku ni ko bagaragaza uko umugore wavutseho abatuye isi ashobora kuba yarasaga kuva mu myaka 95.000 kugeza kuri 15.000 ishize.

Homo floresiensis female. Reconstruction based on LB-1 by John Gurche for the Human Origins Program, NMNH. Date: 95,000 to 15,000 years.

Aba bahanga bakomeza berekana ko kwemera gusa ibivugwa na Bibiliya ukirengagiza siyansi ari ukuyoba cyane. Bavuga ko umwana muto ukiri mu nda ya nyina abanza kugira ibiranga umukobwa mbere yo kugira ibigaragaza ko ari umuhungu, nanone kandi abana b’abakobwa baba bakanguka vuba kurusha abahungu ndetse abagore ngo baba bamurikirwa mbere y’abagabo. Na none kandi nyuma yo gukura bemeza ko umugore aramutse abayeho imyaka irenga 200 byazageza igihe akaba umugabo. Ibyo babishingira ku mihindagurikire y’umubiri we haba mu miterere y’ijwi no mu mitekerereze no mu mitegekere (command).  Uko agenda akura agenda arushaho kwisanisha n’umugabo. Ibi byose rero iyo babikomatanyije bemeza ko uwakwifashisha siyansi mu kumenya uwageze ku isi mbere y’undi hagati y’umugore n’umugabo amahirwe menshi yahengamira ku kuba umugore ari we wabayeho mbere y’umugabo, bitandukanye n’ibyo Bibiliya n’ibindi bitabo by’iyobokamana byemeza.

Ikindi aba bashakashatsi batemeranyaho n’Abemera Bibiliya gusa ni ukuba ngo Ikiremwamuntu cyarabayeho mu buryo bwa giturumbuka, butunguranye kandi bw’igitangaza maze umuntu akisanga ku isi mu gihe bo babona ko habayeho urukurikirane rw’ibintu byagiye bivamo ibindi kugeza umuntu uko tumubona uyu munsi agaragaye. Ku bwabo ngo  kugira ngo buri kintu kibeho bisaba processus nk’uko tubibona ku bindi byaremwe nk’imisozi, ibirunga, imiyaga,amashyamba, imigezi n’inzuzi…

Hanyuma se niba bimeze bityo umwandiko ukurikiraho ko uvuga ku Mugore ngo washutswe n’inzoka akarya ku rubuto rwabuzanyijwe, ubwo noneho rero nabyo ni umugani ? Reka iki tuzagisobanukirwe ubutaha . Ese koko icyaha cyinjiye mu isi binyuriye ku mugore ?




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